Lecture 1, 'Atoms, orbitals & bonding topics', may seem long, but it includes a quick review of what you should remember from inorganic chemistry and ensures that everyone begins the course with the same foundation knowledge about atoms and bonding. This lecture then moves on to orbital hybridization and molecular geometry. For reference, see Chapter 1 of Daley & Daley.
I've divided the lecture up into slide sets that cover a single topic so that each can be downloaded individually. If you want to bring the slides to class, download them via the links below and print them out. Printing two slides per page will save you some paper.
Homework questions are organized by topic as well and are posted in the column of buttons the the right. (Note that buttons with asterisks* are mandatory assignments.) The questions listed for each topic are due at the class meeting after we've finished that topic. Topics are organized by number and title and should be simple to follow.
I've also posted a set of examples that we can use as extra practice problems in class, during office hours or during help sessions. They are also organized by topic. You may want to print these out and bring them to class. A practice quiz offers you more opportunities to check you understanding and preparedness for the exam.
Lecture 1 slide sets: Atoms, orbitals & bonding topics
(Click on the links below to download each slide set for the lecture.)
1. Organic chemistry is the study of diverse carbon-based molecules of life.
2. Electronegativity and distribution of electron pairs determine chemical reactivity.
3. Orbitals and their hybridization are keys to understanding molecular structure.
a. In the quantum model of the atom, electrons reside in orbitals; orbitals are responsible for bonding.
b. Atoms prefer full valence shells and bond to achieve full shells. [octet rule]
c. Electronegativity determines bond strength, polarity and reactivity.
d. Resonance structures are very stable ‘blended’ bonds that lower reactivity.
e. Orbitals hybridize to create a variety of molecular geometries and reactivities.
f. Valence shell electron pairs exert repulsive force upon one another and thus determine
the distribution of orbitals in space (molecular shape).
i. Orbitals are probability plots of electron location; mathematically orbitals are wave
ii. Each orbital can hold zero, one or two electrons.
iii. The aufbau (filling) of orbitals obeys Pauli’s principle and Hund’s rule.
iv. Covalent bonds are pairs of shared electrons that form bonding molecular orbitals.
v. Bonds form at energy minima.
vi. Typical bonding patterns for atoms frequently found in organic molecules.
vii. Method for assessing bond polarity using electronegativity values.
viii. How inductive and field effects can alter bond polarity (and thus reactivity).
ix. Why some resonance structures contribute more than others.
x. Resonance hybrids are a more accurate representation than resonance structures.
xi.Carbon has three basic hybridizations: sp3 (single bonds); sp2 (double bonds); sp (triple
xii. Hybridizations lead to geometries: sp3 is tetrahedral; sp2 is trigonal planer; sp is linear.
xiii. Unbonded electrons occupy orbitals and affect polarity, geometry and reactivity.
xiv. The VSEPR (valence shell electron pair repulsion) chart is a useful tool for predicting
molecular hybridization and shape.
Quantum nature of the electron & atomic behavior: a collection of links & videos
Lewis dot structures, polarity and formal charge:
Resources (not mandatory):
VSEPR resources: bonding patterns, geometry & orbital hybridization
Connecting organic concepts to the real world: