Lecture 2, 'Simple structures to functional groups', introduces the simplest of organic molecules: small hydrocarbons. You will learn how to name them and how to draw them.
Please note that the first topic is covered as a flipped lecture for you to tackle outside of class. The set of HW questions for the flipped topic will have a hard due date to ensure that everyone is prepared for the second topic in class. Lecture 2 references Chapter 2 of Daley & Daley.
Lecture 2 slide sets: Simple structures to functional groups
(Click on the links below to download each slide set for the lecture.)
2.1: Drawing molecular structure (FLIPPED video)
2.2: Arrow formalism & molecular framework
2.3: Introduction to alkanes
2.5: IUPAC naming of alkanes
2.6: Alkyl halides & cycloalkanes
2.7: Functional groups: where the action is
2.8: Alkenes: hydrocarbons with > one double bond
2.9: Alkynes: hydrocarbons with > one triple bond
2.10: Alkene isomers: who's across from whom
2.13: Using molecular formulas
> Key concepts
1. Hydrocarbons form the structural framework of organic molecules.
2. Functional groups do the critical work of organic chemistry & biochemistry.
a. Alkanes and cycloalkanes are hydrocarbons with single bonds only.
b. Alkenes are hydrocarbons with one or more double bond.
c. Alkynes are hydrocarbons with one or more triple bond.
d. Arenes are rings with resonance.
e. Functional group’s reactivity is related to their polarity.
f. Isomers exist for most hydrocarbons.
i. Molecular frameworks can be described as acyclic, carbocyclic or heterocyclic.
ii. Alkanes are saturated.
iii. Alkanes, alkenes and alkynes can be linear, branched or cyclic.
iv. General formulas describe alkanes, alkenes and alkynes and whether molecules are linear
v. Bonds in alkanes have free rotation, while rotation is constrained in cycloalkanes.
vi. Typical bonding patterns for atoms frequently found in organic molecules.
vii. Method for assessing bond polarity using electronegativity values.
viii. How inductive and field effects can alter bond polarity (and thus reactivity).
ix. Why some resonance structures contribute more than others.
x. Resonance hybrids are a more accurate representation than resonance structures.
xi. Carbon has three basic hybridizations: sp3 (single bonds); sp2 (double bonds); sp (triple
xii. Hybridizations lead to geometries: sp3 is tetrahedral; sp2 is trigonal planer; sp is linear.
xiii. Unbonded electrons occupy orbitals and affect polarity, geometry and reactivity.
xiv. The VSEPR (valence shell electron pair repulsion) chart is a useful tool for predicting
molecular hybridization and shape.
Links and items of interest:
Resources for students (not mandatory):