The second section of the course focuses on matter at the microscopic chemical level: atoms, their variant isotopes and ions, and the molecules they form by combining. We'll take a brief tour of the history of atomic discovery and learn how atoms are built and how molecules are formed and named. Supporting material is found in Flowers et al., Chapter 2.
'To the electron - may it never be of any use to anybody.' - JJ Thomson's favorite toast
Topics for Lecture 2 [Links to PowerPoint slide sets]
2.1: Early ideas about atomic theory
2.2: Evolution of atomic theory
2.3: Atomic structure and symbolism
2.4: Chemical formulas
2.5: The periodic table
2.6: Molecular and ionic compounds
2.7: Naming chemical compounds [Covered in lab rather than lecture]
> Terms to know
Links and items of interest:
> VIDEO: 'Discovery of the electron: the cathode ray tube experiment' (Tyler DeWitt, 2012)
> VIDEO: 'Discovery of the nucleus: Rutherford's gold foil experiment' (Tyler DeWitt, 2012)
> VIDEO: 'Charge of an electron: Millikan's oil-drop experiment' (Tyler DeWitt, 2012)
> VIDEO: 'Mass spectrometry' (Paul Andersen, 2013)
> VIDEO: 'A tour of the periodic table' (Paul Andersen, 2010) See the disappearing spoon!
> VIDEO: 'Discovering the elements' (Jim Al-Khalili, BBC, 2011)
> VIDEO: 'The power of the elements' (Jim Al-Khalili, BBC, 2011)
> 'Four new names officially added to the periodic table of the elements'
(St. Fleur, NYT, 2016)
> 'August 30th: Ernest Rutherford's birthday' (Compound Interest, 2016)
> 'September 6th: John Dalton's birthday' (Compound Interest, 2016)
2.1: Discovery of the electron...
> 2.1 *Questions
2.2: Discovery of the nucleus...
> 2.2 *Questions
2.3: What are isotopes?
> 2.3 *Questions
2.4: Basic atomic structure...
> 2.4 *Questions
2.5: Atomic number, mass & charge
> 2.5 *Questions
2.6: Writing empirical formulas - practice
> 2.6 *Questions
2.7: Calculating molecular from empirical..
> 2.7 *Questions
2.8: Naming ionic & covalent compounds -1
Naming ionic & covalent compounds -2
> 2.8 *Questions
Resources for students: